The different eras and calendars in Thailand

 

Year conversion chart

( C.S.)

=

The Chula Sakarat.
This Era was used from the beginning and was offcially changed to Rattanakosin Era on 1. April 1889.

( R.S.)

=

The Rattanakosin Sok.
This Era replaced the Chula Sakarat in the year 1889 or C.S. 1251 or R.S.
The date used is the Solar system. The new year starts on the first day of April.

( A.D.)

=

The Christian Era.
The new year starts on the first day of January.

( B.E.)

=

TheBuddhist Era.
The Buddhist Era starts in the year 2456 (B.E.)

 

 

Chula Sakarat

The Minor Era (Thai: จุลศักราช, chula sakarat) is a year numbering system used primarily in Thailand. Its first year corresponds with the year 639 CE. The name Minor Era is a loan translation from the Thai, which itself is derived from Pali cula "small" and Sanskrit śaka + rāja "royal era". In Thailand, this era is used in contrast with the Shalivahana era, commonly known in Thai as the Major Era (Thai: มหาศักราช, maha sakarat).

In the Minor Era system, the year begins in mid-April. Thus, to calculate the Minor Era year from the Common Era year, deduct 639, or 638 if the date falls between January 1 and the first part of April.

The origin of the system is disputed, but one theory holds that in this year, the Buddhist patriarch Buppasoranhan, after seizing the throne in Burma, declared the first year of the new system.

The Minor Era was widely used in the Lanna period, the late Sukhothai period, and the Ayutthaya period. In modern times it has been occasionally used, such as on coins minted during the reign of king Rama V of Thailand.

 

Thai solar calendar

The Thai solar calendar, Suriyakati (Thai: สุริยคติ: Suriya plus kati : way) was adopted by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) in 1888 as the Siamese version of the Gregorian calendar. It is the official calendar in Thailand, though Thai lunar calendar dates continue in use. Years are counted in the Buddhist Era (póota sàk-gà-râat พุทธศักราช พ.ศ.) that is 543 years greater than the Christian Era (krít sàk-gà-râat คริสต์ศักราช ค.ศ.) As a convenience, calendars typically include the Christian Era (AD) in both Chinese and Arabic numerals.

August 2004: ๒๕๔๗ = 2547 BE in Thai numerals, 二〇〇四年 = 2004 Year in Chinese

 

 

August 2004/2547 BE

 

 

Calendar


# Red numerals mark Sundays and public holidays in Thailand.
# Red Buddha images mark Thai Sabbaths, Wan Phra (วันพระ.)
# Red tablets with white Chinese characters mark the New and Full Moons of the Chinese calendar,
    which typically differ by one day from those of the Thai.

# Scrawled blue figures mark dates of national lottery drawings (for example, 078 on the 15th,
    538 on the 19th and 2576 on the 31st of August 2004.)

# Thai lunar calendar dates appear below the solar calendar date.

 

 

Rattanakosin Era

The Rattanakosin Era (RE) (รัตนโกสินทรศก Rattanakosin Sok) Year 1 began April 6, 1782, with the accession of Rama I, the foundation of the Chakri Dynasty and the founding of Bangkok as capital (Rattanakosin). King Chulalongkorn decreed this as the epoch (reference date) for the counting of years in 106 RE, AD 1888.

 

Buddhist Era

In Thailand the Buddhist Era is reckoned to have an epochal year 0 from 11 March 545 BC, believed to be the date of the death of Gautama Buddha. King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) changed year counting to this Buddhist Era (BE) and moved the start of the year back to April 1 in 2455 BE, AD 1912.

In 1941, Prime Minister Phibunsongkhram decreed January 1 as the start of the year 2484 BE, so year 2483 BE had only nine months. To convert dates from January 1 to March 31 prior to that year, the number to add or subtract is 542; otherwise, it is 543.

Example:

Today, both the Common Era New Year's Day (January 1) and the traditional Thai New Year (สงกรานต์ Songkran) celebrations (April 13-15) are public holidays in Thailand. Buddhist feasts that are public holidays are calculated according to the lunar calendar, so their dates change with respect to the solar calendar every year.

Chinese New Year dates determine the change of zodiacal animal.
The months and days of the week are the same as those used in the Gregorian calendar.

 

Thailand calendar of for free download.